Reports/Articles

BeefCentral.com. Old batteries present lead poisoning risk. 2012, Sept. 14. (Cattle are often poisoned by ingesting lead acid batteries, making deceased cattle an alternative source of lead for scavenging birds.)

Benson, W.W.; Brock, D.; Gabica, J.; Loomis, M. Swan mortality due to certain heavy metals in the Mission Lake area, Idaho. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 1976, 15, 171-174. (An alternative source of soluble lead from mining wastes in Mission Lake, Idaho is highly bioavailable and easily causes poisoning in wildlife, especially waterfowl.)

Countryside Alliance. The Case for Lead. countryside-alliance.org.uk. 2013. (A presentation showing that the evidence presented to decision makers to further restrict lead ammunition use does not pass academic scrutiny and is manipulated to suit a political agenda.)

Iowa Department of Natural Resources. Advice from the Iowa DNR to Venison Processors.  (Advice regarding venison process from the Iowa Department of Natural resources states that there is no evidence linking venison consumption to lead poisoning in humans.)

Minnesota Department of Natural Resources.  Lead information for hunters.  (The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources states that “To date, no illnesses have been linked to consumption of lead particles in hunter-harvested venison.”)

New York State Department of Environmental Conservation.  Ammunition: Non-lead or lead? Information for Big Game Hunters and Meat Processors. (The NYS Department of Environmental Conservation states that “To date, there are no reported human illnesses related to the consumption of wild game shot with lead ammunition.”)

North Dakota Department of Health and North Dakota Department of Agriculture. 2008/09 Lead Fragments in Ground Venison Processors Study. Sept. 2009. (Occurrence of lead in ground venison is minimal (<6%) in 54 meat processing plants in North Dakota.)

Sandy Wilbur. Condor tales: Is lead poisoning a weapon of mass destruction (or just a problem to be resolved?). Updated July 2008.  (The pioneer of the California condor recovery efforts criticizes the paranoid rhetoric used by the current Condor Recovery Program in targeting lead ammunition as the only source of exposure for condors and advocates research to explore alternative lead sources in the environment.)

University of Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service. Arkansas:  Lead Poisoning In Livestock Is Costly But Preventable.  (Discussion  of the prevalence of lead poisoning in farm animals, particularly cattle, due to the ingestion of numerous lead-containing items.)