Papers/Studies

Beyer, W.N.; Dalgarn, J.; Dudding, S.; French, J.B.; Mateo, R.; Miesner, J.; Sileo, L.; Spann, J. Zinc and lead poisoning in wild birds in the tri-state mining district (Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri). Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 2004 ,48, 108-117. (Migratory birds exhibited increased lead tissue concentrations relative to non-lead-exposed birds due to environmental contamination from an alternative source from a nearby lead mine and smelter.)

Beyer, W.N.; Franson, J.C.; French, J.B.; May, T.; Rattner, B.A.; Shearn-Boschler, V.I.; Warner, S.E.; Weber, J.; Mosby, D. Toxic exposure of songbirds to lead in the Southeast Missouri lead mining district. Environmental Contamination Toxicology. (Songbirds exposed to toxic concentrations of an alternative source of lead from mining and smelting operations, due to consumption of lead poisoned earthworms.)

Blus, L.; Henny, C.; Hoffman, D.; Sileo, L.; Audet, D. Persistence of high lead concentrations and associated effects in tundra swans captured near a mining and smelting complex in Northern Idaho. Ecotoxicology. 1999, 8, 125-132.  (Tundra swans were chronically and acutely lead poisoned by mining waste in Northern Idaho from a highly bioavailable alternative source of soluble lead from the centuries of mining operations.)

Burger, J.; Gochfeld, M. Metals in Laysan Albatrosses from Midway AtollArchives of Environmental contamination and toxicology. 2000, 38, 254-259.  (Laysan Albatrosses on Midway Atoll, a decommissioned military base, were chronically lead poisoned due to exposure to an alternative source of flaking, lead-based paint, a highly soluble and bioavailable form of lead.)

Buttigieg, G.A.; Baker, M.E.; Ruiz, J.; Denton, M.B. Lead isotope ratio determination for the forensic analysis of military small arms projectiles. Analytical Chemistry. 2003, 75, 5022-5029. (Lead isotopic ratios for a number of military small arms projectiles from the U.S. and other countries were measured and show a much larger range than the narrow range reported by Church et al. (2006) – one of the main papers used to justify the lead ammunition ban.)

Byrne, D.; Gill, P. Lead poisoning in livestock. NSW Department of Primary Industries. 2011. (Shows dangers from an alternative source of lead in the environment causing lead poisoning in cattle.)

Carpenter, J. W.; Pattee, O. H; Fritts, S. H.; Rattner, B. A.; Wiemeyer, S. N.; Royle, J. A.; Smith, M.R. Experimental lead poisoning in Turkey vultures (Cathartes aura).  Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 2003, 39, 96-104.  (Turkey vultures were continually fed lead shot for over 140 days before finally succumbing to lead toxicosis, demonstrating the low solubility of metallic lead in avian scavenger’s digestive system.)

Checkley, S.; Waldner, C.; Blakley, B. Lead poisoning in cattle: Implications for food safety.  Large Animal Veterinary Rounds. 2002, 2, 8.  (Cattle herds exposed to alternative sources of lead in the environment showed that asymptomatic cattle can contain very high lead levels, making them unfit for human consumption.)

Chmiel, K.M.; Harrison, R.M. Lead content of small mammals at a roadside site in relation to the pathways of exposure. Science of the Total Environment.1981, 17, 145-54.  (High lead exposure for mammals living near large roadways due to an alternative source of lead from tetra-ethyl leaded gasoline residues cause high soil contamination and significant health effects.)

Day, D.D.; Beyer, W.N.; Hoffman, D. J.; Morton, A.; Sileo, L.; Audet, D.J.; Ottinger, M.A. Toxicity of lead-contaminated sediment to mute swans. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 2003, 44, 0510-0522. (Mute swans were poisoned from an alternative source of lead contaminated sediment near the Coeur D’Alene River mining area.)

DeMent, S.H.; Chisolm, J.J.; Barber, J.C.; Strandberg, J.D. Lead exposure in an “urban” peregrine falcon and its avian prey. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 1986, 22, 238-244.  (Urban bird of prey showed elevated levels of lead by consuming birds known to scavenge on human trash or live near roadways where they were exposed to an alternative source of lead compounds and products.)

Dorn, C. R.; Tuomari, D.; Reddy, C.; Logan, T. J. Acute lead poisoning with eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in calves on a farm receiving land application of sewage sludgeJournal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology. 1986, 3-4, 305-313.  (Calves and cattle were exposed to lead from an alternative source, municipal sewer sludge used on fields that the cattle then grazed upon.  These cattle were also exposed to lead from used oil filters left out.)

Dwivedi, S. K.; Swarup, D.; Dey, S.; Patra, R. C. Lead poisoning in cattle and buffalo near primary lead-zinc smelter in India. Veterinary  and Human Toxicology. 2001, 43, 93-94.  (Cattle and buffalo were lead poisoned from a lead-zinc smelter in India, causing contamination of the milk produced by the animals as well as death.)

Finkelstein, M.E.; Gwiazda, R.; Smith, D.R. Lead poisoning of seabirds: Environmental risks from leaded paint at a decommissioned military base. Environmental Science and Technology. 2003, 37, 3256-3260. (Laysan Albatrosses on Midway Atoll, a decommissioned military base, were chronically lead poisoned due to exposure to an alternative source of flaking, lead-based paint, a highly soluble and bioavailable form of lead.)

Graham, D. L.; Kalman, S. M. Lead in forage grass from a suburban area in Northern California. Environmental Pollution. 1974, 7, 209-215.  (Lead concentrations of soil and plants in common foraging areas for cattle were found to be sufficiently high enough to cause health concerns.  The source of the lead was found to be vehicle exhaust containing tetra-ethyl lead, an alternative source of lead found throughout the United States.)

Gwiazda, R.; Campbell, C.; Smith, D. A noninvasive isotopic approach to estimate the bone lead contribution to blood in children: Implications for assessing the efficacy of lead abatement. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2005, 113, 104-110. (Lead isotopic composition from an alternative source of lead in lead-based paint samples found in the U.S. is entirely consistent with the isotopic range found in condor blood and lead ammunition.)

Gwiazda, R.H.; Smith, D.R. Lead isotopes as a supplementary tool in the routine evaluation of household lead hazards. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2000, 108, 1091-1097. (Lead isotopic composition from an alternative source of lead in lead-based paint samples found in the U.S. is entirely consistent with the isotopic range found in condor blood and lead ammunition.)

Haldimann, M.; Baumgartner, A.; Zimmerli, B. Intake of lead from game meat – a risk to consumers’ health? European Food Research and Technology. 2002, 215, 375-359. (No significant difference in blood-lead levels between hunters who regularly consumed wild game harvested with lead ammunition and a control group who did not, thus the researchers conclude that no human health risk exists and “frequent consumption of wild game meat has no significant effect on blood lead levels.”)

Harradine, J. Sport Shooting and the Environment: Sustainable use of lead ammunition. World Symposium on Lead Ammunition. 2004, pg. 119-130.  (An analysis of the impacts of lead ammunition on wildlife and the lack of robust scientific data justifying stronger restrictions on the use of lead ammunition in the environment.)

Henny, C.; Blus, L.; Hoffman, D.; Grove, R. Lead in hawks, falcons and owls downstream from a mining site on the Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 1994, 29, 267-288.  (Raptors and other birds of prey were lead poisoned after being exposed to an alternative source of mining waste from Coeur D’Alene River Basin.)

Henny, C. J.; Blus, L. J.; Hoffman, D. J.; Sileo, L.; Audet, D. J.; Snyder, M. R. Field evaluation of lead effects on Canada geese and mallards in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin, Idaho. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 2000, 39, 97-112.  (An alternative source of lead from the contaminated mining wastes in soils and plants within the Coeur D’Alene River basin causes significant poisoning of waterfowl.)

Holmgreen, C.; Qvarfot, U. Lead in game meat-bioaccessibility of metallic lead fragments. WFSA Plenary Session. 2013.  (Metallic lead fragments from ammunition are not bioavailable, as researchers calculated that only 0.05% of any metallic lead is converted to a bioavailable form of lead in the intestinal tract, well below any level of concern.)

Johnson, G. D.; Audet, D. J.; Kern, J. W.; LeCaptain, L. J.; Strickland, M. D.; Hoffman, D. J. McDonald, L. L. Lead exposure in passerines inhabiting lead-contaminated floodplains in the Coeur D'Alene River Basin, Idaho, USA. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 1999, 18, 1190–1194.  (Lead poisoned songbirds from exposure to a soluble form of lead from mining waste in the Coeur D’Alene River Basin shows significant health effects from an alternative source.)

LaVelle, J.M.; Poppenga, R.H.; Thacker, B.J.; Glesy, J.P.; Wels, C.; Othoudt, R.; Vandervoort, C.  Bioavailability of lead in mining wastes: an oral intubation study in young swineChemical Speciation and Bioavailability. 1991, 3, 105-111.  (Young swine were used to model human children in determining the bioavailability of lead from mining wastes, and the small lead particles created from mining operations were readily bioavailable and easily absorbed causing poisoning.)

Lemos, R.A.; Driemeier, D.; Guimaraes, E.B.; Dutra, I.S.; Mori, A.E.; Barros, C.S.  Lead poisoning in cattle grazing pasture contaminated by industrial waste.  Veterinary and Human Toxicology.  2004, 46, 326-328.  (Cattle put to pasture near a car battery recycling plant were exposed to toxic levels of lead fumes, killing over 1/3 of the herd.)

Levine, R.J.; Moore, R.M.; McLaren, G.D.; Barthel, W.F.; Landrigan, P.J.  Occupational lead poisoning, animal deaths, and environmental contamination at a scrap smelter. American Journal of Public Health. 1976, 66, 548-552.  (Employees, animals, and residents near a scrap smelter were lead poisoned from exposure to fumes and contaminated soils.)

Liu, Z.P.  Lead poisoning combined with cadmium in sheep and horses in the vicinity of non-ferrous metal smeltersScience of the Total Environment.  2003, 309, 117-126.  (Industrial activity in China caused combined lead-cadmium poisoning of sheep and horses feeding on contaminated soils/plants nearby non-ferrous smelters.)

Mierau, G.; Favara, B.  Lead poisoning in roadside populations of deer mice. Environmental Pollution. 1970, 8, 55-63.  (Lead poisoned deer mice near a busy freeway in Colorado shows that tetra-ethyl lead is an alternative source that is very soluble lead compound, from leaded gasoline causes significant health effects.)

Neathery, M.W.; Miller, W.J. Metabolism and toxicity of cadmium, mercury, and lead in animals: A review. Journal of Dairy Science. 1975, 58, 1767-1781. (Frequent heavy metal exposure and poisoning of animals; notably the lead poisoning of cattle due to exposure from an alternative source of lead in the environment.)

Pattee, O. H.; Carpenter, J. W.; Fritts, S. H.; Rattner, B. A.; Wiemeyer, S. N.; Royle, J. A.; Smith, M.R. Lead poisoning in captive Andean condors (Vultur gryphus).  Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 2006, 42, 772-779.  (Andean condors were continually fed lead shot for over 40 days before finally succumbing to lead toxicosis, demonstrating the low solubility of metallic lead in the condor’s digestive system.)

Payne, J.; Livesey, C. Lead poisoning in cattle and sheep. In Practice. 2010, 32, 64-69.  (A discussion of the sources and management of lead exposure in cattle.  Alternative sources of lead are identified, as well as the implications of food safety for humans consuming meat from exposed cattle.)

Rabinowitz, M.B. Stable isotope mass spectrometry in childhood lead poisoning. Biological Trace Element Research. 1987, 12, 223-229.  (Lead isotopic composition from an alternative source of lead in lead-based paint samples found in the U.S. is entirely consistent with the isotopic range found in condor blood and lead ammunition.)

Rodríguez-Estival, J.; Taggart, M.; Mateo, R. Alterations in Vitamin A and E Levels in Liver and Testis of Wild Ungulates from a Lead Mining Area. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 2010, 60, 361-371.  (Details the health effects of lead pollution from a mining area in Spain on Vitamin A and E levels in deer and wild boars.)

Rogers, T. A., Bedrosian, B., Graham, J. and Foresman, K. R. Lead exposure in large carnivores in the greater Yellowstone ecosystem. Journal of Wildlife Management. 2011, 76, 575–582. (Researchers attempting to find a link between lead ammunition and lead poisoning of wildlife actually found no correlation between hunting season and lead poisoning of carnivores that fed on carcasses and gut piles of game taken by hunters using lead ammunition.)

Roggerman, S.; Boeck, de G.; Cock, De H.; Blust, R.; Bervoets, L. Accumulation and detoxification of metals and arsenic in tissues of cattle (Bos Taurus), and the risks for human consumption. Science of the Total Environment. 2014, 466-467, 175-184. (Cattle are lead poisoned even in areas that are not heavily polluted demonstrating the potential of this alternative source of lead for condors.)

Ruby, M.V.; Schoof, R.; Brattin, W.; Goldade, M.; Post, G.; Harnois, M.; Mosby, D.E.; Casteel, S.W.; Berti, W.; Carpenter, M.; Edwards, D.; Cragin, D.; Chappell, W.  Advances in Evaluating the Oral Bioavailability of Inorganics in Soil for Use in Human Health Risk Assessment. Environmental Science and Technology. 1999, 33, 3697-3705. (Metallic lead is the least bioavailable of lead substances showing that lead ammunition does not pose a human health risk.)

Saba, D. Comment on "Ammunition is the Principal Source of Lead Accumulated by California Condors Re-Introduces to the Wild."  Environmental Science and Technology. 2008, 42, 1807-1808. (Debunking of the methodology behind the isotopic compositional analysis used by Church et al. (2006) allegedly showing a narrow isotopic range for lead ammunition to match the narrow isotopic range found in condor blood.)

Schmitt, C.; Caldwell, C.; Olsen, B.; Serdar, D.; Coffey, M. Inhibition of Erythrocyte δ-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase (ALAD) activity in fish from waters affected by lead smelters. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2002, 77, 99-119.  (High levels of an alternative source of soluble lead on fish populations exposed to wastes from lead smelters cause significant health effects.)

Schmitt, C.; Whyte, J.; Brumbaugh, W.; Tillit, D.  Biochemical effects of lead, zinc, and cadmium from mining on fish in the Tri-States district of Northeastern Oklahoma, USAEnvironmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 2005, 24, 1483–1495.  (Lead poisoned fish in a historically heavily mined area shows that solubilized lead from this alternative source causes significant health effects.)

Schoof, R.; Butcher, M.; Sellstone, C.; Ball, R. W.; Fricke, J.; Keller, V.; Keehn, B. An assessment of lead absorption from soil affected by smelter emissions. Environmental Geochemistry and Health. 2005, 17, 189-199.  (Alternative source of lead found in a contaminated soil from a smelter was highly bioavailable (41%) in rats compared to metallic lead, which is approximately 0.5% [2])

Sharpe, R. T.; Livesey, C. T.  Lead poisoning in cattle and its implications for food safety. Veterinary Record. 2006, 159, 71-74.  (A case study of cattle lead poisonings from 1990-2003, with the most commonly cited alternative sources of lead exposure examined, such as lead batteries, lead paint and soil from mining activities.)

U.S. Center for Disease Control.  North Dakota lead exposure study. 2008. (Families in North Dakota who consistently consumed game meat taken with lead ammo had lower blood lead levels than the average adult in the U.S. (1.17 µg/dL vs. 2 µg/dL).)

Waldner, C.; Checkley, S.; Blakley, B.; Pollock, C.; Mitchell, B. Managing lead exposure and toxicity in cow-calf herds to minimize the potential for food residues. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2002, 14, 481-486. (Cattle from different herds experienced substantial losses due to lead toxicosis from exposure to an alternative source of lead in the environment from lead batteries.)

Yabe, J.Z.;  Nakayama, S.M.; Ikena, Y.; Muzandu, K.; Ishizuka, M.; Umemura, T. Uptake of lead, cadmium, and other metals in the liver and kidneys of cattle near a lead-zinc mine in Kabwe, Zambia. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 2001, 30, 1892-1897. (Cattle were exposed to toxic levels of an alternative source of lead after grazing near a lead-zinc mine. Lead poisoned cattle or calves are a viable alternative source of lead in the environmental for California condors as cattle are the majority of the condor’s diet.)